Yifan Shi, Bobick, A. Essa, I. (2006), “Learning Temporal Sequence Model from Partially Labeled Data” Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2006
Volume: 2, page(s): 1631 – 1638, ISSN: 1063-6919, ISBN: 0-7695-2597-0, Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/CVPR.2006.174 [IEEEXplore]
Graphical models are often used to represent and recognize activities. Purely unsupervised methods (such as HMMs) can be trained automatically but yield models whose internal structure – the nodes – are difficult to interpret semantically. Manually constructed networks typically have nodes corresponding to sub-events, but the programming and training of these networks is tedious and requires extensive domain expertise. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised approach in which a manually structured, Propagation Network (a form of a DBN) is initialized from a small amount of fully annotated data, and then refined by an EM-based learning method in an unsupervised fashion. During node refinement (the M step) a boosting-based algorithm is employed to train the evidence detectors of individual nodes. Experiments on a variety of data types – vision and inertial measurements – in several tasks demonstrate the ability to learn from as little as one fully annotated example accompanied by a small number of positive but non-annotated training examples. The system is applied to both recognition and anomaly detection tasks.